Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast
Results 1 to 20 of 21

Thread: New paper on afghan population genetics

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Posts
    2,900

    Default New paper on afghan population genetics

    This paper is just published recently:

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0034288

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Posts
    2,900

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    A total of 8,706 samples were used in the analyses including 204 newly genotyped samples from Afghanistan. The genotyping results and the subjects' paternal province and their city or village of origin when available are listed in Table S2. The dataset used include Middle Easterns (2,720 samples) [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], Central/South Asians (1,335 samples) [15], [16], [17], [18], East Asians (1,029 samples) [15], [19], Caucasians (1,525 samples) [20], West Russians (545 samples) [21], Europeans (1,123 samples) [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], and Africans (222 samples) [26], [27]. More details on the analyzed samples are listed in Table S3.

    Results Top

    Genotyping revealed 32 halpogroups present in Afghanistan's ethnic groups among our samples. Haplogroups R1a1a-M17, C3-M217, J2-M172, and L-M20 were the most frequent when Afghan ethnic groups were pooled, together comprising >66% of the chromosomes. Absolute and relative haplogroup frequencies are tabulated in Table S4.
    Haplogroup frequencies across the major ethnic groups revealed large differences. In particular, frequencies of haplogroup C3-M217, which is mainly found in East Asia, and haplogroup R1a1a-M17, which is found in Eurasia, varied substantially among the Afghan groups. C3-M217 was significantly more frequent (p = 4.55×10−9) in Uzbeks (41.18%) and Hazaras (33.33%) than it was in Tajiks (3.57%) and Pashtuns (2.04%). On the other hand, R1a1a-M17 was significantly more frequent (p = 3.00×10−6) in Pashtuns (51.02%) and Tajiks (30.36%) than in Uzbeks (17.65%) and Hazaras (6.67%). RM networks of C3-M217 (Figure S1A) and R1a1a-M17 (Figure S1B) show that when a haplogroup was infrequent in an ethnic group, its haplotypes existed on branches not shared with other Afghans, suggesting that the underrepresented haplogroups are not the result of a gene flow between the ethnic groups, but probably a direct assimilation from source populations.
    Haplogroups autochthonous to India [15]; L-M20, H-M69, and R2a-M124 were found more (p = 0.004) in Pashtuns (20.41%) and Tajiks (19.64%) than in Uzbeks (5.88%) and Hazaras (5%). E1b1b1-M35 was found in Hazaras (5%) and Uzbeks (5.88%) but not in Pashtuns and Tajiks. RM network of E1b1b1-M35 (Figure S1C) shows that Afghanistan's lineages are correlated with Middle Easterners and Iranians. We also note the presence of the African B-M60 only in Hazara, with a relatively recent common founder ancestor from East Africa as shown in the RM network (Figure S1D).
    PCA of the haplogroups frequency (Figure 1) also shows differences among Afghans. Although the worldwide populations are mostly clustered according to geography, Afghan groups appear to show more affinity to non-Afghans than to each others. Pashtun and Hazara in Afghanistan and Pakistan show affinity to their ethnic groups across borders. The Afghan Tajiks show equal distance to Central Asia and to Iran/Caucasus/West Russia. The Afghan Hazara, Afghan Uzbek, and Pakistan Hazara sit between East Asia and the Middle East/Europe-Caucasus/West Russia cluster.


    ore details about the structure of the Afghan population appear in the MDS of the 's (Figure 2B) which shows that the Afghan Pashtun and Tajik are closer to North and West Indians than to the other Afghans; Hazara and Uzbek. This cluster also sits between East Europeans and Iranians more close to the Iranians especially to East Azerbaijan. Furthermore, Barrier (Figure 2A) shows that Barrier IV splits the Afghan populations separating the Hazara and Uzbek from the Pashtun, Tajik and the Indian populations, creating groups of populations that have less variation within the groups (2.30%, p<0.001) and more variation among groups (10.48%, p<0.001) compared to populations grouped by region or country (within groups = 4.95%, p<0.001, among groups = 7.16%, p<0.001) (Table S5).

    A previous study on Pakistan [39], that included ethnic groups also present in Afghanistan (Baluch, Hazara, Pashtun), showed that Y-chromosome variation was structured by geography and not by ethnic affiliation. With the exception of Hazara, all ethnic groups in Pakistan were shown to have similar Y-chromosome diversity, they clustered with South Asians, and they are close to Middle Eastern males. A Y-chromosome study [40] on populations from Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikstan, found that there is greater diversity among populations that share the same ethnic group than among the ethnic groups themselves. These observations support a common genetic ancestry hypothesis for these populations irrespective of ethnicity. We have also found substantial differences among the various groups of Afghanistan. The inter-ethnic comparisons however could not be tested in this study since information on tribe and clan affiliation was not available. The high genetic diversity observed among Afghanistan's groups has also been observed in other populations of Central Asia [41], [42], [43], [44], [45]. It is possibly due to the strategic location of this region and its unique harsh geography of mountains, deserts and steppes, which could have facilitated the establishment of social organizations within expanding populations, and helped maintaining genetic boundaries among groups that have developed over time into distinct ethnicities.
    The RM networks of the major common haplogroups show that the flow of paternal lineages among the various ethnic groups is very limited, and it is consistent with high level of endogamy practiced by these groups. Similar Y-chromosome results have been previously reported among the Central Asian ethnic groups [40], but with less pronounced genetic differentiation in maternal lineages [40], most likely the results of endogamous practices that were tolerant to assimilation of foreign females.
    The prevailing Y-chromosome lineage in Pashtun and Tajik (R1a1a-M17), has the highest observed diversity among populations of the Indus Valley [46]. R1a1a-M17 diversity declines toward the Pontic-Caspian steppe where the mid-Holocene R1a1a7-M458 sublineage is dominant [46]. R1a1a7-M458 was absent in Afghanistan, suggesting that R1a1a-M17 does not support, as previously thought [47], expansions from the Pontic Steppe [3], bringing the Indo-European languages to Central Asia and India.
    MDS and Barrier analysis have identified a significant affinity between Pashtun, Tajik, North Indian, and West Indian populations, creating an Afghan-Indian population structure that excludes the Hazaras, Uzbeks, and the South Indian Dravidian speakers. In addition, gene flow to Afghanistan from India marked by Indian lineages, L-M20, H-M69, and R2a-M124, also seems to mostly involve Pashtuns and Tajiks. This genetic affinity and gene flow suggests interactions that could have existed since at least the establishment of the region's first civilizations at the Indus Valley and the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex.
    Furthermore, BATWING results indicate that the Afghan populations split from Iranians, Indians and East Europeans at about 10.6 kya (95% CI 7,100–15,825), which marks the start of the Neolithic revolution and the establishment of the farming communities. In addition, Pashtun split first from the rest of the Afghans around 4.7 kya (95% CI 2,775–7,725), which is a date marked by the rise of the Bronze Age civilizations of the region. These dates suggest that the differentiation of the social systems in Afghanistan could have been driven by the emergence of the first urban civilizations. However, the dates suggested by BATWING should be treated with care, since BATWING does not model gene flow and differential assimilation of incoming migrations. These events could alter the time of split. However, it was previously shown that topologies and times of splits in the modal trees generated by BATWING are insensitive to in-migration [13], which leaves BATWING timing results insusceptible to in-migrations and invasions that might be expected to reduce the times of split [13]. On the other hand, the times of population splits for BATWING's modal trees are very susceptible to subsequent migration between those populations. This means that the 2 major waves of splitting could have occurred earlier, but since RM networks of the major haplogroups show limited gene flow between the ethnic groups and since the population structure suggested by MDS and Barrier correlate populations from the historically connected [2] Bronze Age sites to Pashtun and Tajik, BATWING suggested splits in Afghan populations at 4.7 kya (95% CI 2,775–7,725) are very probable. A previous study by Heyer et al conducted in Central Asia [40] have also estimated significantly older dates for the emergence of ethnic groups from what has been historically known. These older dates may be explained by the fact that This suggests that the ethnic groups could have resulted from a encompass fusion of different populations [40] or that ethnicities developed were established from anin already structured population(s).

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Posts
    2,900

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    The Islamic invasion in the 7th century CE left an immense cultural impact on the region, with reports of Arabs settling in Afghanistan and mixing with the local population [49]. However the genetic signal of this expansion is not clearly evident: some Middle Eastern lineages such as E1b1b1-M35 are present in Afghanistan, but the most prevalent lineage among Arabs (J1-M267) was only found in one Afghan subject. In addition, the three Afghans that identified their ethnicity as Arab, had lineages autochthonous to India.

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Posts
    2,900

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Interesting isn't it?
    Last edited by UrduSpeaker; 03-28-2012 at 04:35 PM.

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Mar 2008
    Location
    uk
    Posts
    4,026

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Intresting to see an urduspeaker interested in Afghans to this extent.

    Miss tanmay and his camel jokes. Oh boy Oh boy
    Surah 90, Verse 4:

    لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي كَبَدٍ


    که ما انسان را در رنج آفریدیم (و زندگی او پر از رنجهاست

    We have certainly created man into hardship

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Mar 2003
    Posts
    9,818
    Blog Entries
    1

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Quote Originally Posted by UrduSpeaker View Post
    ...the three Afghans that identified their ethnicity as Arab, had lineages autochthonous to India.
    I think this is interesting!
    I dont not Sympathized with Criminals.

  7. #7
    Join Date
    Mar 2007
    Location
    Sydney, Australia
    Posts
    6,272

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Quote Originally Posted by UrduSpeaker View Post
    The Islamic invasion in the 7th century CE left an immense cultural impact on the region, with reports of Arabs settling in Afghanistan and mixing with the local population [49]. However the genetic signal of this expansion is not clearly evident: some Middle Eastern lineages such as E1b1b1-M35 are present in Afghanistan, but the most prevalent lineage among Arabs (J1-M267) was only found in one Afghan subject. In addition, the three Afghans that identified their ethnicity as Arab, had lineages autochthonous to India.
    This hardly news. It is well known in history that Arabs did not settle in big numbers east of Mesopatamia.

  8. #8
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Location
    HeLaTeSheng
    Posts
    10,726
    Blog Entries
    3

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Interesting!
    I can be without anyone
    but not without you.

    Rumi Balkhi

  9. #9
    Join Date
    Sep 2004
    Location
    with dadak
    Posts
    4,067
    Blog Entries
    1

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Nice read. Thanks Urdu.
    zah da hagha chaman gull yem che bahar pe naraze-- ka zowani she zama khawre sta atbar pe naraze

  10. #10

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    This is bull****.....its trying to show Afghanistan has an unusually heterogenous population, where the groups show larger affinity to other groups abroad rather than to each other. These are all politcal studies... now what about this scientific research about the Uzbeks and Tajiks in present republics of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – which concluded that there was NO difference between Uzbaks and Tajiks living in those two areas.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/science...ks_turks.shtml

    How come Tajik and Uzbaks have affinity to their follow ethnic groups across border but at the same time different from each other?


    Keeping in mind Pashton, Tajik, Baloch, Pamiri and Nooristani genetic similarity’s (as this article indicates—90% are the same) and keeping in mind pashton making 55% of Afghanistan’s population and tajiks 25%---80% combine…then how come Afghanistan people are not homogeneous?

  11. #11

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    "ore details about the structure of the Afghan population appear in the MDS of the 's (Figure 2B) which shows that the Afghan Pashtun and Tajik are closer to North and West Indians than to the other Afghans" It doesn't get more absurd then this sentence....Tajik and Pashton together make 80 to 85% of Afghanistan population. What exactly they mean by North and west Indians here is genetic study of India Pakistan...in fact north and west Indians are more diverse. Strangely Sendis are more close to Pashton and Tajiks then Pujabi.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic..._of_South_Asia

  12. #12
    Join Date
    Jan 2012
    Location
    Western Hemisphere
    Posts
    1,235

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Quote Originally Posted by Aleron View Post
    This is bull****.....its trying to show Afghanistan has an unusually heterogenous population, where the groups show larger affinity to other groups abroad rather than to each other. These are all politcal studies... now what about this scientific research about the Uzbeks and Tajiks in present republics of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – which concluded that there was NO difference between Uzbaks and Tajiks living in those two areas.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/science...ks_turks.shtml

    How come Tajik and Uzbaks have affinity to their follow ethnic groups across border but at the same time different from each other?


    Keeping in mind Pashton, Tajik, Baloch, Pamiri and Nooristani genetic similarity’s (as this article indicates—90% are the same) and keeping in mind pashton making 55% of Afghanistan’s population and tajiks 25%---80% combine…then how come Afghanistan people are not homogeneous?

    o rly

  13. #13
    Join Date
    Apr 2010
    Posts
    691

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    This study confirms what is already fairly well known that Tajiks and pashtuns are closer to each other than to uzbeks and hazaras while hazaras and uzbeks are closer to other mongoloids. Its just common sense really. Nevertheless it dispels some myths about pashtuns being Bani Isreal.

  14. #14
    Join Date
    Sep 2011
    Posts
    648

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Wonderful to see people throw around figures as if a reliable formal census or any form of similar data has been collected
    Or in fact, is even possible to collect.
    Really, it is.

    As for the thread: not particularly "breaking news".

  15. #15

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Quote Originally Posted by xxxxxx View Post
    This study confirms what is already fairly well known that Tajiks and pashtuns are closer to each other than to uzbeks and hazaras while hazaras and uzbeks are closer to other mongoloids. Its just common sense really. Nevertheless it dispels some myths about pashtuns being Bani Isreal.
    This study http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/science...ks_turks.shtml

    confirms the opposite....meaning Tajik and Uzbak of central Asia are the same.

  16. #16

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    Quote Originally Posted by Aleron View Post
    Keeping in mind Pashton, Tajik, Baloch, Pamiri and Nooristani genetic similarity’s (as this article indicates—90% are the same) and keeping in mind pashton making 55% of Afghanistan’s population and tajiks 25%---80% combine…then how come Afghanistan people are not homogeneous?
    Nuristanis dont share similar ancestral origins with other ethnic groups as they had lived for thousands of years in isolation until Abdur Rahman conquered them in the 19th century. Also the Baloch are not a race but a confederation of tribes that have different racial origins, but over time were absorbed into a common social order with a shared language, customs and territory, thus giving them a common 'Baloch' identity which today can be considered an ethnic one, but it is not a racial one.
    Long Live Baluch Freedom Struggle Until Victory!
    [SIGPIC][/SIGPIC]
    Long Live Baluch Freedom Struggle Until Victory!

  17. #17
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    Location
    Lab e darya
    Posts
    1,273

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    o khudaya

    ee gapaa chi maana dara.

    did u guys forget....we all came from baba Adam

    useless studies and statistics

  18. #18
    Join Date
    Mar 2007
    Location
    Sydney, Australia
    Posts
    6,272

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    ^^Baba Adam is a fairytale like Santa Clause.

  19. #19
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    Location
    Lab e darya
    Posts
    1,273

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    ^I am startled

  20. #20
    kochagasht Guest

    Default Re: New paper on afghan population genetics

    seriously, this is doubly bizarre given the obsessed individual is not even afghan

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  


Afghan Music  |  Afghan Videos  |  Afghan TV  |  Afghan Radio  |  Afghan Chat  |  Afghan Lyrics  |  Vancouver Printing Company  |  Afghan MP3  |  Afghan Music Videos